|Keithley Instrumentation for Electrochemical Test Methods and Applications
This Application Note discusses electrochemistry disciplines in which Keithley instrumentation is used.
|Achieving Accurate and Reliable Resistance Measurements in Low Power and Low Voltage Applications
There are many factors that make low voltage measurements difficult. This paper discusses techniques to eliminate thermoelectric voltages to allow more accurate resistance measurements, including a three-step delta measurement method for low power/low voltage applications.
|New Instruments Can Lock Out Lock-ins
With modern instruments like the Keithley 6220 Current Source and 2182A Nanovoltmeter, the DC reversal method requires less power while providing excellent low-noise results. This combination is optimal for low frequencies (0.1–24Hz,) allowing measurements to be made much faster than with a lock-in amplifier.
|An Improved Method for Differential Conductance Measurements
Keithley''s approach to differential conductance, a four-wire, source current/measure voltage technique, uses the 6220 and 6221 Current Sources and 2182A Nanovoltmeter. The current sources combine the DC and AC components into one source, with no need to do a secondary measure of the current, because its output is much less dependent on the changing device impedance